Concussions

Vision and Balance

 
Visual Processing Systems
 
  • Central or Focal Visual Process
    • Identification and detail
  • Peripheral or Ambient Visual Process
    • Spatial awareness
 
Visual Disorders Following Concussion
 
  • Visual Acuity
    • Static- ability to clearly see non-moving objects
    • Dynamic- ability to focus on an object during head movement
  • Oculomotor – Eye Tracking
    • Fixation
    • Pursuits- smoothly follow moving targets/objects
    • Saccades-quickly and accurately shift from one object to another
  • Binocularity – Eye Teaming
    • Convergence- the movement of both eye inward to focus on and object
    • Divergence- the movement of both eye outward to focus on and object
  • Accommodation – Eye Focusing
    • Insufficiency- reduced level of focus stamina required for accurate near binocular vision
    • Infacility – inability to change the accommodation of the eye with enough speed and accuracy to achieve normal function
  • Photosensitivity – sensitivity to light
  • Visual Spatial Dysfunction – difficulty organizing visual information into meaningful patterns and understanding how they might change as they rotate and move through space
  • Visual-Vestibular Integration Problem - neural combination of visual signals and vestibular signals regarding head movement
  • Visual Information Processing Problem - hindered ability to make sense of information taken through the eyes.
 

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