Abdominal Pain - Female
Abdominal Pain - Male
Acne
Animal or Human Bite
Antibiotics: When Do They Help
Arm Injury
Arm Pain
Asthma Attack
Athlete's Foot
Back Pain
Bed Bug Bite
Bee or Yellow Jacket Sting
Blisters
Bottle-Feeding Formula Questions
Breast-Feeding Questions
Bruise
Burn
Chest Pain
Chickenpox
Circumcision Problems
Colds
Constipation
Cough
Coughs: Meds or Home Remedies
Cracked or Dry Skin
Cradle Cap
Croup
Crying Baby - Before 3 Months Old
Crying Child - 3 Months and Older
Cut, Scrape, or Bruise
Diaper Rash
Diarrhea
Diarrhea Diseases From Travel
Dizziness
Drinking Fluids - Decreased
Dry Skin
Ear - Congestion
Ear - Discharge
Ear - Injury
Ear - Pulling At or Rubbing
Ear - Swimmer's
Ear Infection Questions
Earache
Earwax Buildup
Ebola Exposure
Eczema
Emergency Symptoms Not to Miss
Eye - Allergy
Eye - Foreign Body or Object
Eye - Injury
Eye - Pus or Discharge
Eye - Red Without Pus
Eye - Swelling
Fever
Fever - How to Take the Temperature
Fever - Myths Versus Facts
Fifth Disease
Finger Injury
Fire Ant Sting
Flu
Fluid Intake Decreased
Food Allergy
Foreskin Care Questions
Frostbite
Genital Injury - Female
Genital Injury - Male
Hair Loss
Hand-Foot-And-Mouth Disease HFMD
Hay Fever
Head Injury
Headache
Heat Exposure and Reactions
Heat Rash
Hives
Human or Animal Bite
Immunization Reactions
Impetigo - Infected Sores
Infection Exposure Questions
Influenza - Seasonal
Influenza Exposure
Insect Bite
Jaundiced Newborn
Jellyfish Sting
Leg Injury
Leg Pain
Lice - Head
Lymph Nodes - Swollen
Medication - Refusal to Take
Mental Health Problems
Molluscum
Mosquito Bite
Mosquito-Borne Diseases from Travel
Motion Sickness
Mouth Injury
Mouth Ulcers
Neck Pain or Stiffness
Newborn Appearance Questions
Newborn Illness - How to Recognize
Newborn Rashes and Birthmarks
Newborn Reflexes and Behavior
Nose Allergy Hay Fever
Nose Injury
Nosebleed
Penis-Scrotum Symptoms
Pinworms
Poison Ivy - Oak - Sumac
Puncture Wound
Rash or Redness - Localized
Rash or Redness - Widespread
Reflux Spitting Up
Ringworm
Roseola
Scabies
Scrape
Sinus Pain or Congestion
Skin Foreign Body or Object
Skin Injury
Skin Lump
Sliver or Splinter
Sore Throat
Spider Bite
Spitting Up - Reflux
Stomach Pain - Female
Stomach Pain - Male
Stools - Blood In
Stools - Unusual Color
Strep Throat Exposure
Strep Throat Infection
Sty
Sunburn
Suture Questions
Swallowed Foreign Body or Object
Swallowed Harmless Substance
Swimmer's Itch - Lakes and Oceans
Tear Duct - Blocked
Teething
Thrush
Tick Bite
Toe Injury
Toenail - Ingrown
Tooth Injury
Toothache
Umbilical Cord Symptoms
Urinary Tract Infection - Female
Urination Pain - Female
Urination Pain - Male
Vaginal Symptoms
Vomiting With Diarrhea
Vomiting Without Diarrhea
Warts
Wheezing Other Than Asthma
Wound Infection

Resources

Is Your Child Sick?TM


Antibiotics: When Do They Help?

Antibiotics are strong medicines that can kill bacteria. They have saved many lives and prevented bad outcomes. These drugs do not kill viruses. They only work on bacteria. Every day, doctors must decide if a child's infection is viral or bacterial. Here's how they do it:

Bacterial Infections

Much less common than viral infections. Antibiotics can help. Bacteria cause:

  • Most ear infections
  • Most sinus infections (not sinus congestion)
  • 20% of sore throats which are Strep throats
  • 10% of pneumonia (a lung infection)

Viral Infections

Most infections in children are caused by a virus. Antibiotics do not help. Viruses cause:

  • 100% of colds. (Note: unless they turn into an ear or sinus infection. This happens with 5 to 10% of colds.)
  • 95% of new coughs. (Note: asthma can also start with a cough.)
  • 95% of fevers
  • 80% of sore throats
  • 90% of pneumonia. (Note: most cases in children are caused by a virus.)
  • 99% of diarrhea and vomiting
  • Note: There are a few anti-viral drugs that can treat viral infections. An example is Tamiflu used for severe influenza.

Cold Symptoms that are Normal

Parents sometimes are worried about common cold symptoms. The symptoms below are not signs of bacterial infections. Nor, are they a reason to start antibiotics.

  • Green or yellow nose discharge. This is a normal part of getting over a cold. It is not a clue to a sinus infection.
  • Green or yellow coughed up phlegm. This is a normal part of getting over viral bronchitis. It is not a sign of pneumonia.
  • High fevers. High fevers (more than 104° F or 40° C) can be caused by a virus or bacteria.

Side Effects of Antibiotics

All antibiotics have side effects. Some children taking these drugs can get side effects. Examples are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or a rash. Loose stools occur because the drug kills off the good bacteria in the gut. If your child gets a rash, it can be from the drug. Your doctor has to decide if the rash is an allergy or not. The biggest side effect of overuse is called antibiotic resistance. This is when the germs are no longer killed by the drug. That's why we only use antibiotics if your child really needs one.

Giving Antibiotics for Viral Infections: What Happens?

If your child has a virus, an antibiotic won't get rid of the fever. It will not help the other symptoms. The drug will not get your child back to school sooner. It will not get you back to work any faster. If your child has side effects from the drug, he will feel worse.

What You Can Do

  • Save antibiotics for bacterial infections when your child really needs them
  • Don't pressure your child's doctor for an antibiotic
  • Treat your child's cold and cough symptoms with home treatment that works
  • Keep in mind that fever is fighting the infection. It also boosts the immune system to prevent future infections.

Copyright 1994-2017 Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC. All rights reserved.

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